Nitrogen containing monosaccharides
Sulphur containing monosaccharides
Heparin & chondroitin derived oligosaccharides
What are Monosaccharides?
Monosaccharides, often considered to be simple sugars, are the basic building blocks of carbohydrates. These are generally water-soluble, crystalline solids with the general formula CnH2nOn. They can be classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain, the most abundant are pentoses (5 carbons) and hexoses (6 carbons).
Examples of these building blocks commonly found in nature include xylose (plant cell walls), ribose (RNA), glucose (cell energy source), mannose (plant cell walls) and fructose (a constituent of sucrose).
Monosaccharides form more complex saccharides via the formation of glycosidic bonds. For example, D-glucose and D-galactose combine to form the disaccharide lactose, commonly found in milk, while D-glucose and D-fructose combine to form sucrose (table sugar).