Blood Group A
Blood Group And Lewis Antigen Neoglycolipids
Blood Group and Lewis Antigen Neoglycoproteins
Blood Group B
Blood Group H
NGP9305 Blood group A-HSA (6 atom spacer)
NGP9323 Blood group B-HSA (6 atom spacer)
The Blood Typing System & Carbohydrates
The discovery of the ABO blood typing system by Karl Landsteiner over 100 years ago and the subsequent elucidation of their carbohydrate structures by Walter Morgan were exceedingly important milestones in the progression of modern medicine.
The ABO is system is the most important of the many blood typing systems and is of the utmost importance in transfusion and transplantation medicine. If patients receive a transfusion of incompatible blood, an acute haemolytic reaction can occur, this can lead to death.
The blood group antigens are oligosaccharides expressed on the surface of red blood cells and are determined by the terminal saccharides. The biosynthesis is effected via the action of the A or B glycosyltransferase on the H antigen, to form the A or B glycan. The H antigen remains unmodified in individuals lacking either of these glycosyltransferases, resulting in an individual with blood type O. The expression of these antigens is not limited to red blood cells and also occurs on epithelial and other cells.
Blood groups are determined by the ABO gene, which encodes the glycosyltransferase which forms the A, B and H antigens. The alleles for the A and B blood types show co-dominance, whilst the blood group O allele is recessive, giving rise to the familiar four ABO blood types.